Learn chinese | Chinesehour

The republic that Sun Yat-sen (孙逸仙 ) and his associates envisioned evolved slowly. The revolutionists lacked an army, and the power of Yuan Shikai ( 袁世凯) began to outstrip that of parliament. Yuan revised the constitution at will and became dictatorial. In August 1912 a new political party was founded by Song Jiaoren (宋教仁 1882-1913), one of Sun’s associates. The party, the Guomindang (国民党 Kuomintang or KMT–the National eople’s Party, frequently referred to as the Nationalist Party), was an amalgamation of small political groups, including Sun’s Tongmeng Hui (同盟会 ). In the national elections held in February 1913 for the new bicameral parliament, Song ampaigned against the Yuan administration, and his party won a majority of seats. Yuan had Song assassinated in March; he had already arranged the assassination of several pro-revolutionist generals. Animosity toward Yuan grew. In the summer of 1913 seven southern provinces rebelled against Yuan. When the rebellion was suppressed, Sun and other instigators fled to Japan. In October 1913 an intimidated parliament formally elected Yuan president of the Republic of China, and the major powers extended recognition to his government. To achieve international recognition, Yuan Shikai had to agree to autonomy for Outer Mongolia and Xizang (西藏 ). China was still to be suzerain, but it would have to allow Russia a free hand in Outer Mongolia and Britain continuance of its influence in Xizang.

In November Yuan Shikai, legally president, ordered the Guomindang dissolved and its members removed from parliament. Within a few months, he suspended parliament and the provincial assemblies and forced the promulgation of a new constitution, which, in effect, made him president for life. Yuan’s ambitions still were not satisfied, and, by the end of 1915, it was announced that he would reestablish the monarchy. Widespread rebellions ensued, and umerous provinces declared independence. With opposition at every quarter and the nation breaking up into warlord factions, Yuan Shikai died of natural causes in June 1916, deserted by his lieutenants.

Nationalism and Communism

After Yuan Shikai’s death, shifting alliances of regional warlords fought for control of the Beijing government. The nation also was threatened from without by the Japanese. When World War I broke out in 1914, Japan fought on the Allied side and seized German holdings in Shandong (山东 ) Province. In 1915 the Japanese set before the warlord government in Beijing the so-called Twenty-One Demands, which would have made China a Japanese protectorate. The Beijing government rejected some of these demands but yielded to the Japanese insistence on keeping the Shandong territory already in its possession. Beijing also recognized Tokyo’s authority over southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. In 1917, in secret communiques, Britain, France, and Italy assented to the Japanese claim in exchange for the Japan’s naval action against Germany.

In 1917 China declared war on Germany in the hope of recovering its lost province, then under Japanese control. But in 1918 the Beijing government signed a secret deal with Japan accepting the latter’s claim to Shandong. When the Paris peace conference of 1919 confirmed the Japanese claim to Shandong and Beijing’s sellout became public, internal reaction was shattering. On May 4, 1919, there were massive student demonstrations against the Beijing government and Japan. The political fervor, student activism, and iconoclastic and reformist intellectual currents set in motion by the patriotic student protest developed into a national awakening known as the May Fourth Movement (五四运动 ). The intellectual milieu in which the May Fourth Movement developed was known as the New Culture Movement and occupied the period from 1917 to 1923. The student demonstrations of May 4, 1919 were the high point of the New Culture Movement, and the terms are often used synonymously. Students returned from abroad advocating social and political theories ranging from complete Westernization of China to the socialism that one day would be adopted by China’s communist rulers.

Opposing the Warlords

The May Fourth Movement helped to rekindle the then-fading cause of republican revolution. In 1917 Sun Yat-sen had become commander-in-chief of a rival military government in Guangzhou ( 广州) in collaboration with southern warlords. In October 1919 Sun reestablished the Guomindang to counter the government in Beijing. The latter, under a succession of warlords, still maintained its facade of legitimacy and its relations with the West. By 1921 Sun had become president of the southern government. He spent his remaining years trying to consolidate his regime and achieve unity with the north. His efforts to obtain aid from the Western democracies were ignored, however, and in 1921 he turned to the Soviet Union, which had recently achieved its own revolution. The Soviets sought to befriend the Chinese revolutionists by offering scathing attacks on “Western imperialism.” But for political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both Sun and the newly established Chinese Communist Party ( 共产党CCP). The Soviets hoped for consolidation but were prepared for either side to emerge victorious. In this way the struggle for power in China began between the Nationalists and the Communists. In 1922 the Guomindang-warlord alliance in Guangzhou was ruptured, and Sun fled to Shanghai (上海 ). By then Sun saw the need to seek Soviet support for his cause. In 1923 a joint statement by Sun and a Soviet representative in Shanghai pledged Soviet assistance for China’s national unification. Soviet advisers–the most prominent of whom was an agent of the Comintern, Mikhail Borodin–began to arrive in China in 1923 to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the Guomindang along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The CCP was under Comintern instructions to cooperate with the Guomindang, and its members were encouraged to join while maintaining their party identities. The CCP was still small at the time, having a membership of 300 in 1922 and only 1,500 by 1925. The Guomindang in 1922 already had 150,000 members. Soviet advisers also helped the Nationalists set up a political institute to train propagandists in mass mobilization techniques and in 1923 sent Chiang Kai-shek (蒋介石 Jiang Jieshi in pinyin), one of Sun’s lieutenants from Tongmeng Hui days, for several months’ military and political study in Moscow. After Chiang’s return in late 1923, he participated in the establishment of the Whampoa (黄浦 Huangpu in pinyin) Military Academy outside Guangzhou, which was the seat of government under the Guomindang-CCP alliance. In 1924 Chiang became head of the academy and began the rise to prominence that would make him Sun’s successor as head of the Guomindang and the unifier of all China under the right-wing nationalist government.

Sun Yat-sen died of cancer in Beijing in March 1925, but the Nationalist movement he had helped to initiate was gaining momentum. During the summer of 1925, Chiang, as commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army, set out on the long-delayed Northern Expedition against the northern warlords. Within nine months, half of China had been conquered. By 1926, however, the Guomindang had divided into left- and right-wing factions, and the Communist bloc within it was also growing. In March 1926, after thwarting a kidnapping attempt against him, Chiang abruptly dismissed his Soviet advisers, imposed restrictions on CCP members’ participation in the top leadership, and emerged as the preeminent Guomindang leader. The Soviet Union, still hoping to prevent a split between Chiang and the CCP, ordered Communist underground activities to facilitate the Northern Expedition, which was finally launched by Chiang from Guangzhou in July 1926.

In early 1927 the Guomindang-CCP rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks. The CCP and the left wing of the Guomindang had decided to move the seat of the Nationalist government from Guangzhou to Wuhan. But Chiang, whose Northern Expedition was proving successful, set his forces to destroying the Shanghai CCP apparatus and established an anti-Communist government at Nanjing in April 1927. There now were three capitals in China: the internationally recognized warlord regime in Beijing; the Communist and left-wing Guomindang regime at Wuhan (武汉 ); and the right-wing civilian-military regime at Nanjing, which would remain the Nationalist capital for the next decade.

The Comintern cause appeared bankrupt. A new policy was instituted calling on the CCP to foment armed insurrections in both urban and rural areas in preparation for an expected rising tide of revolution. Unsuccessful attempts were made by Communists to take cities such as Nanchang (南昌 ), Changsha (长沙 ), Shantou (汕头 ), and Guangzhou, and an armed rural insurrection, known as the Autumn Harvest Uprising, was staged by peasants in Hunan Province. The insurrection was led by Mao Zedong (毛泽东1893-1976), who would later become chairman of the CCP and head of state of the People’s Republic of China. Mao was of peasant origins and was one of the founders of the CCP.

But in mid-1927 the CCP was at a low ebb. The Communists had been expelled from Wuhan by their left-wing Guomindang allies, who in turn were toppled by a military regime. By 1928 all of China was at least nominally under Chiang’s control, and the Nanjing government received prompt international recognition as the sole legitimate government of China. The Nationalist government announced that in conformity with Sun Yat-sen’s formula for the three stages of revolution–military unification, political tutelage, and constitutional democracy–China had reached the end of the first phase and would embark on the second, which would be under Guomindang direction.

[Slashdot] [Digg] [Reddit] [del.icio.us] [Facebook] [Technorati] [Google]

The Rise of the Manchus

Although the Manchus were not Han Chinese and were strongly resisted, especially in the south, they had assimilated a great deal of Chinese culture before conquering China Proper. Realizing that to dominate the empire they would have to do things the Chinese way, the Manchus retained many institutions of Ming and earlier Chinese derivation. They continued the Confucian court practices and temple rituals, over which the emperors had traditionally presided.

The Manchus continued the Confucian civil service system. Although Chinese were barred from the highest offices, Chinese officials predominated over Manchu officeholders outside the capital, except in military positions. The Neo-Confucian philosophy, emphasizing the obedience of subject to ruler, was enforced as the state creed. The Manchu emperors also supported Chinese literary and historical projects of enormous scope; the survival of much of China’s ancient literature is attributed to these projects.

Ever suspicious of Han Chinese, the Qing rulers put into effect measures aimed at preventing the absorption of the Manchus into the dominant Han Chinese population. Han Chinese were prohibited from migrating into the Manchu homeland, and Manchus were forbidden to engage in trade or manual labor. Intermarriage between the two groups was forbidden. In many government positions a system of dual appointments was used–the Chinese appointee was required to do the substantive work and the Manchu to ensure Han loyalty to Qing rule.

The Qing regime was determined to protect itself not only from internal rebellion but also from foreign invasion. After China Proper had been subdued, the Manchus conquered Outer Mongolia (now the Mongolian People’s Republic) in the late seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century they gained control of Central Asia as far as the Pamir Mountains and established a protectorate over the area the Chinese call Xizang (西藏) but commonly known in the West as Tibet. The Qing thus became the first dynasty to eliminate successfully all danger to China Proper from across its land borders. Under Manchu rule the empire grew to include a larger area than before or since; Taiwan, the last outpost of anti-Manchu resistance, was also incorporated into China for the first time. In addition, Qing emperors received tribute from the various border states.

The chief threat to China’s integrity did not come overland, as it had so often in the past, but by sea, reaching the southern coastal area first. Western traders, missionaries, and soldiers of fortune began to arrive in large numbers even before the Qing, in the sixteenth century. The empire’s inability to evaluate correctly the nature of the new challenge or to respond flexibly to it resulted in the demise of the Qing and the collapse of the entire millennia-old framework of dynastic rule.

[Slashdot] [Digg] [Reddit] [del.icio.us] [Facebook] [Technorati] [Google]

The Chinese Regain Power

Rivalry among the Mongol imperial heirs, natural disasters, and numerous peasant uprisings led to the collapse of the Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty (1368-1644) was founded by a Han Chinese peasant and former Buddhist monk turned rebel army leader (朱元璋). Having its capital first at Nanjing (南京which means Southern Capital) and later at Beijing (北京or Northern Capital), the Ming reached the zenith of power during the first quarter of the fifteenth century. The Chinese armies reconquered Annam (安南), as orthern Vietnam was then known, in Southeast Asia and kept back the Mongols, while the Chinese fleet sailed the China seas and the Indian Ocean, cruising as far as the east coast of Africa. The maritime Asian nations sent envoys with tribute for the Chinese emperor. Internally, the Grand Canal was expanded to its farthest limits and proved to be a stimulus to domestic trade.

The Ming maritime expeditions stopped rather suddenly after 1433, the date of the last voyage. Historians have given as one of the reasons the great expense of large-scale expeditions at a time of preoccupation with northern defenses against the Mongols. Opposition at court also may have been a contributing factor, as conservative officials found the concept of expansion and commercial ventures alien to Chinese ideas of government. Pressure from the powerful Neo-Confucian bureaucracy led to a revival of strict agrarian-centered society. The stability of the Ming dynasty, which was without major disruptions of the population (then around 100 million), economy, arts, society, or politics, promoted a belief among the Chinese that they had achieved the most satisfactory civilization on earth and that nothing foreign was needed or welcome.

Long wars with the Mongols, incursions by the Japanese into Korea, and harassment of Chinese coastal cities by the Japanese in the sixteenth century weakened Ming rule, which became, as earlier Chinese dynasties had, ripe for an alien takeover. In 1644 the Manchus (满洲人) took Beijing from the north and became masters of north China, establishing the last imperial dynasty, the Qing (1644-1911).

 

中文译文:

汉族人重获政权

蒙古贵族内部的争权夺势,天灾和大量的农民起义导致了元朝的瓦解。明朝是由一个叫朱元璋的判军首领建立的,他是个汉族的农民,以前还当过和尚。明朝先建都在南京,而后在北京,它的权利在15世纪前25年达到顶峰。汉族军队又一次征服了安南(就是现在的越南南部地区,在亚洲东南部),击退了蒙古军队,与此同时,中国舰队驶向中国海和印度洋,最远到达了非洲东海岸。亚洲的半岛国家,派出使节带着供品来朝拜明朝庭。国内,大运河延伸到尽可能的远,促进了国内贸易的发展。

明朝的海上探险于1433年某天的最后一次航程后突然停止。历史学家给出的理由就是,海上探险需要大量的开支,而当时的当务之急就是抵御蒙古人的入侵。朝廷上有人反对也可能是个客观原因,因为一些保守的中国官员认为,扩张和经济入侵与政府的传统观念背道而驰。新儒家掌权派对政府施加压力,使得社会恢复到以前的土地集中制模式。明朝的稳定,是和它人口(大约有1亿),经济,艺术或者政治都是分不开的,从而形成了中国人这样一种观点,他们的文明是世界上最发达的,不需要也不欢迎任何外国人。

与蒙古人的长期战争,日本人入侵朝鲜,倭寇长期骚扰中国沿海城市,至16世纪,明朝的统治衰弱了,和以往的中国朝代一样,会出现一个新的势力来取代它。1644年, 满洲人从北方攻占北京,统治了中国北部,确立了最后一个封建王朝,清朝(1644-1911)。

[Slashdot] [Digg] [Reddit] [del.icio.us] [Facebook] [Technorati] [Google]

Mongolian Interlude

By the mid-thirteenth century, the Mongols had subjugated north China, Korea, and the Muslim kingdoms of Central Asia and had twice penetrated Europe. With the resources of his vast empire, Kublai Khan (忽必烈 1215-94), a grandson of Genghis Khan (成吉思汗 1167?-1227) and the supreme leader of all Mongol tribes, began his drive against the Southern Song. Even before the extinction of the Song dynasty, Kublai Khan had established the first alien dynasty to rule all China–the Yuan (1279-1368).

Although the Mongols sought to govern China through traditional institutions, using Chinese (Han) bureaucrats, they were not up to the task. The Han were discriminated against socially and politically. All important central and regional posts were monopolized by Mongols, who also preferred employing non-Chinese from other parts of the Mongol domain–Central Asia, the Middle East, and even Europe–in those positions for which no Mongol could be found. Chinese were more often employed in non-Chinese regions of the empire.

As in other periods of alien dynastic rule of China, a rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan dynasty. The major cultural achievements were the development of drama and the novel and the increased use of the written vernacular. The Mongols’ extensive West Asian and European contacts produced a fair amount of cultural exchange. Western musical instruments were introduced to enrich the Chinese performing arts. From this period dates the conversion to Islam, by Muslims of Central Asia, of growing numbers of Chinese in the northwest and southwest. Nestorianism and Roman Catholicism also enjoyed a period of toleration. Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism) flourished, although native Taoism endured Mongol persecutions. Confucian governmental practices and examinations based on the Classics, which had fallen into disuse in north China during the period of disunity, were reinstated by the Mongols in the hope of maintaining order over Han society. Advances were realized in the fields of travel literature, cartography and geography, and scientific education. Certain key Chinese innovations, such as printing techniques, porcelain production, playing cards, and medical literature, were introduced in Europe, while the production of thin glass and cloisonne became popular in China. The first records of travel by Westerners date from this time. The most famous traveler of the period was the Venetian Marco Polo, whose account of his trip to “Cambaluc,” the Great Khan’s capital (now Beijing), and of life there astounded the people of Europe. The Mongols undertook extensive public works. Road and water communications were reorganized and improved. To provide against possible famines, granaries were ordered built throughout the empire. The city of Beijing was rebuilt with new palace grounds that included artificial lakes, hills and mountains, and parks. During the Yuan period, Beijing became the terminus of the Grand Canal, which was completely renovated. These commercially oriented improvements encouraged overland as well as maritime commerce throughout Asia and facilitated the first direct Chinese contacts with Europe. Chinese and Mongol travelers to the West were able to provide assistance in such areas as hydraulic engineering, while bringing back to the Middle Kingdom new scientific discoveries and architectural innovations. Contacts with the West also brought the introduction to China of a major new food crop–sorghum–along with other foreign food products and methods of preparation.

中文译文:

蒙古入侵

 13世纪中期,蒙古征服了古代中国北部,韩国和中亚地区的大部分穆斯林国家,并两次入侵欧洲。凭借自己帝国的丰富资源,成吉思汗(1167?-1227)的孙子-忽必烈(1215-1294),蒙古族的大统领,开始发动对南宋的进攻。在宋朝正式灭亡前,忽必烈就首次建立起另一个政权-元(1279-1368),来统治整个中国。

虽然蒙古试图沿用中原文化来统治整个中国,任用汉族的官员,但是也没达到他们的目的。汉族在社会和政治中都受到歧视。所有重要的中央和地方的职位都被蒙古人占据,他们也喜欢聘用一些从中亚,中东,甚至是非洲来的异国人担任官员,而这些职位中没有一个是蒙古人。汉族也更多的被派往异域去任职。

和其它异族统治中国的其他时期一样,在元朝期间,文化多元化得到了发展。主要的文化成就是戏曲及长篇小说都得到了发展,书面语也得到了广泛的应用。蒙古和中亚及欧洲接壤,从而使双方的文化得到了相当广泛的交流。西方的乐器被引进来丰富中国的表演艺术。从这个时期开始,由中亚地区的穆斯林传入的伊斯兰教开始盛行,西北和西南地区的汉族越来越多。景教和罗马天主教享受了一段时期的繁华。喇嘛教空前兴盛,但是土生土长的道教却受到了蒙古人的封杀。
儒家政治实践和考核是建立在古典基础上的,它在中国分裂时期的北方地区渐渐被疏于使用,而蒙古人为了维持汉朝的统治秩序,又恢复了它的使用。旅游文献,绘图法,地理学和科学教育的重要性被提上日程。一些重要的中国发明,如印刷术,制瓷术,纸牌和医学文献被引进欧洲。与此同时,轻玻璃和瓷器制品在中国开始流行。
第一份由外国人写的游记是从这个时期开始的。这个时期最有名的游客是马可波罗,他记录了他到达元朝的首都“大都(现在的北京)”的过程及在这里的生活,让欧洲人都为之向往。蒙古了承担了大量了社会工作。道路和水利都得到了休整和改善。为了抵御饥荒,政府下令在帝国境内修建谷仓。北京城被重新修葺了,宫殿也翻新了,有了人工湖,假山和公元。在元朝统治时期,北京成为重新开凿后的大运河的终点。这些商业动向的改善,推动了整个亚洲地区陆上及海上贸易的发展,同时,也便利了中国人首次与欧洲交往的尝试。到西方去的汉族和蒙古族,提供了水利工程援助,同时也带回去了新的科学发明和建筑创新。与西方的交流,也为中国引进了一种新的事物品种-高粱,同时还有一些其他的外国食品和加工方法。

[Slashdot] [Digg] [Reddit] [del.icio.us] [Facebook] [Technorati] [Google]

But in 960 a new power, Song (960-1279), reunified most of China Proper. The Song period divides into two phases: Northern Song (960-1127) and Southern Song (1127-1279). The division was caused by the forced abandonment of north China in 1127 by the Song court, which could not push back the nomadic invaders.

The founders of the Song dynasty built an effective centralized bureaucracy staffed with civilian scholar-officials. Regional military governors and their supporters were replaced by centrally appointed officials. This system of civilian rule led to a greater concentration of power in the emperor and his palace bureaucracy than had been achieved in the previous dynasties.

The Song dynasty is notable for the development of cities not only for administrative purposes but also as centers of trade, industry, and maritime commerce. The landed scholar-officials, sometimes collectively referred to as the gentry, lived in the provincial centers alongside the shopkeepers, artisans, and merchants. A new group of wealthy commoners–the mercantile class–arose as printing and education spread, private trade grew, and a market economy began to link the coastal provinces and the interior. Landholding and government employment were no longer the only means of gaining wealth and prestige.

Culturally, the Song refined many of the developments of the previous centuries. Included in these refinements were not only the Tang ideal of the universal man, who combined the qualities of scholar, poet, painter, and statesman, but also historical writings, painting, calligraphy, and hard-glazed porcelain. Song intellectuals sought answers to all philosophical and political questions in the Confucian Classics. This renewed interest in the Confucian ideals and society of ancient times coincided with the decline of Buddhism, which the Chinese regarded as foreign and offering few practical guidelines for the solution of political and other mundane problems.

The Song Neo-Confucian philosophers, finding a certain purity in the originality of the ancient classical texts, wrote commentaries on them. The most influential of these philosophers was Zhu Xi (朱熹b1130-1200), whose synthesis of Confucian thought and Buddhist, Taoist, and other ideas became the official imperial ideology from late Song times to the late nineteenth century. As incorporated into the examination system, Zhu Xi’s philosophy evolved into a rigid official creed, which stressed the one-sided obligations of obedience and compliance of subject to ruler, child to father, wife to husband, and younger brother to elder brother. The effect was to inhibit the societal development of premodern China, resulting both in many generations of political, social, and spiritual stability and in a slowness of cultural and institutional change up to the nineteenth century. Neo-Confucian doctrines also came to play the dominant role in the intellectual life of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan.

 中文译文:

但是在公元960年,出现了一个新势力,宋(960-1279),重新统一了大部分中国。宋朝分为两个阶段:南宋(960-1127)和北宋(1127-1279)。分裂源于1127年,北方游牧民族的入侵,宋朝廷放弃了整个中国北方地区。

宋朝的创立者建造了一个有效的中央官僚机构,提拔了一批民间的学者做为官员。地区割据的首领和他们的同伙被中央指定的官员代替。这种官员任命制度使得权利高度集中在君王和他的统治机构手中,并且超过以往的任何一个朝代。

宋朝以其城区的高度发展而闻名,不仅仅是因为它的管理成效,还因为它是贸易中心,工业中心和海运中心。那些有土地的文官,通常也被称为贵族,住在店主,工匠和商人云集的省中心。一个新富裕起来的平民群体-商人-以经商和推广教育为途径;个人贸易盛行,商业贸易开始在邻省和全国范围内进行。拥有领地和在政府任职已经不是获得财富和声望的唯一途径了。

文化上,宋朝汲取了前几个世纪发展的精髓。在这些精髓中,不仅有唐朝的全才论,要求这个人集学者,诗人,画家和政治家的身份为一身,而且也有历史上的写作,绘画,书法和瓷器。宋朝的贤人开始研究孔子学说中关于哲学和政治的探讨。这种对孔子学说和远古社会的复兴,标志着佛学的衰落。佛学被中国人喻为异教,而且它提出的理论根本没办法解决中国现行的政治和其他社会问题。

宋朝的新儒家哲学家,发现了一种把原始的历史文献净化的方法,即给它们写注释。这些学者中最有名的一个是朱熹(公元1130-1200年),他集儒家,佛学,道家和其它思想之所长,然后合成了王权理念,被从宋朝晚期一直沿用到19世纪后期。在科考制度上,朱熹观点融入了严格的官方教条,对上级和君王要绝对的服从,子从父纲,妻从夫纲,弟从兄纲。这些约束了近现代中国社会的发展,也导致了政治,社会和思想的矛盾,抑制了文化的和政治体制发展直到19世纪。同一时期,新儒家理论也同样在韩国,越南和日本的文化中占据了主导作用。

[Slashdot] [Digg] [Reddit] [del.icio.us] [Facebook] [Technorati] [Google]
Page 64 of 70« First...«6162636465666768»...Last »